All Different, All Equal

Aims, objectives, and intended audience

All Different, All Equal contains practical and theoretical materials designed to help people understand the causes of racism and intolerance and learn to value differences between people of different backgrounds. The activities in this education pack help participants develop a new or different view of society and encourage them to take action. It was written by a multicultural team as part of The European Youth Campaign. As such, much of the text draws on examples from Europe, though the underlying concepts are more broadly applicable. The target audience of these materials is young people; however, the authors note that the materials may be adapted for other age groups and for use in informal education settings.

This page addresses the first edition, dated 1995. A second edition was released in 2004 that covers the same content but includes updated examples.

Broad structure and key educational methods

All Different, All Equal is divided into two parts. Part A overviews many key concepts and ideas related to difference, discrimination, and intercultural education. The background information provided in these three chapters contains numerous discussion questions to prompt conversation among participants. Part B contains numerous participatory exercises designed to provide groups of various sizes the opportunity to work on intercultural education issues. These activities vary in levels of skill/knowledge required and are highly adaptable to various settings. Activities range from storytelling to role-play to analysis of media.

Key topics or themes by module

Part A – Key Concepts and Basis for Intercultural Education

1. Challenges, Problems and their Origins
While this chapter focuses heavily on Europe, this material covers numerous topics that would be transferrable to other settings. The text asserts that political and economic forces have led to an increase in multicultural societies. Using Europe as an example, the chapter explores how these forces have created imbalances and divisions among communities, ethnic groups, and nations. The material then critically analyzes what it means to be a “minority” with regards to numbers and power. It also distinguishes between migrants, refugees, and asylees and briefly mentions other themes related to immigration such as xenophobia.

2. Understanding Difference and Discrimination
This chapter explains a wide range of terms associated with difference, including: multicultural, intercultural, culture, identity, stereotypes, prejudices, ethnocentrism, discrimination, xenophobia, intolerance, anti-Semitism, and racism. The text examines different explanations associated with racism ranging from “racism is a myth” to “racism is deeply rooted in history.” The chapter concludes by asserting that “racism = power + prejudice.”

3. Intercultural Education: A Positive Approach to Difference
This chapter focuses on youth intercultural education, noting that this may occur in both formal settings (i.e., the education system) as well as informal venues (i.e., youth organizations, international exchange programs). The text presents intercultural education as a process with different stages:
1) To imagine yourself from the outside – personal reflection on one’s own realities
2) To understand the world we live in – the interdependence of various societies, states, and countries
3) To be acquainted with other realities – overcoming the “fear of the unknown”
4) To see difference positively – difference should be enriching, not divisive
5) To favour positive attitudes, values and behavior – acceptance, tolerance, and related values provide a foundation for solidarity

Part B – Activities, Methods and Resources

Part B is a compilation of 43 different activities designed to help participants practice intercultural education through a participatory approach. In addition to the instructions and other practical details related to the activity (i.e., aims, group size, time allocation, etc.), each activity is ranked according to the level of understanding and discussion skills necessary for a group to have a fruitful learning experience. Moreover, each activity is also labeled by the themes that are relevant (G = group dynamics, I = images of others, M = examining relevant social, cultural, economic, and/or educational mechanisms, A = those encouraging social change and acceptance of difference). These activities may be adapted to different contexts and groups.